Ancient DNA analysis of Oase 2 found that 6%-9% of the specimen's genome was culled from Neanderthals.
This is the highest percentage of archaic introgression yet found in a modern human sequence, which suggests that this individual had a recent Neanderthal ancestor, probably within four to six generations earlier.
In this context, the particular importance of the "Peștera cu Oase" findings resides both in the mixture of modern human and archaic (Neanderthal) features and in the fact that they are sufficiently complete to be taxonomically diagnosed and directly dated.
Thus, the Oase fossils overlap in time for some 3000 years with late Neanderthals like those of Vindija Cave (Croatia) dated to ~32,000 radiocarbon years BP or less for Arcy-sur-Cure (France) at ~34,000 radiocarbon years BP.
However, the Oase 1 specimen likely did not factor significantly into the gene pool of later humans in Europe since he does not share a greater proportion of alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians.
While "Oase 1" lower jaw is fully mature, the facial skeleton is that of a mid-second-decade adolescent, therefore corresponding to a second individual, designated as "Oase 2".
The specimen's 12th chromosome was also 50% Neanderthal.
In February 2002, a speleological team exploring the karstic system of Miniș Valley, in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains near Anina, revealed a previously unknown chamber with a profusion of mammalian skeletal remains.
The country itself felt like a poor version of Italy, and I don’t mean that as an insult.Besides, the notion that the Oase people are very close to the time of contact with Neanderthals is consistent with their archaic traits, and finds additional support in the patterns of spatio-temporal distribution of the latest Neanderthal remains.Since genetics does not reject the hypothesis of a Neanderthal-modern admixture, and morphological and archaeological evidence suggest that Neanderthal lineages survived into later Upper Paleolithic populations, "Peștera cu Oase" findings provide a strong argument in favor of an admixture model between regional Neanderthals and early modern humans.The on-site findings from the 2005 campaign are currently cross-examined at the Romanian "Emil Racoviță" Institute of Speleology, Australian National University, (electron spin resonance and uranium-series dating on 21 bone/tooth samples and 29 associated sediment samples), University of Bristol, (uranium-series analysis on 22 bone samples), University of Bergen, (uranium-series dating on 7 samples), University of Oxford (AMS radiocarbon dating on 8 bone/tooth samples), Max Planck Institute (stable isotope analysis and ancient DNA on 37 bone/tooth samples), University of Vienna (AMS radiocarbon dating on 25 bone/tooth samples).A skull found in Peștera cu Oase in 2004/5 bears features of both modern humans and Neanderthals.